Ph.D (Doctor of Philosophy) in Pharmacy

A Ph.D is the highest qualification obtained after an in-depth training in a particular area through original research. The research topic is given by supervisor or selected by the PhD student by the consultation of the supervisor. It must be novel and able to make a significant contribution to the existing knowledge of the field. A thesis, based on the original research is written by the student and is submitted for final assessment of the student. PhD program is a blend of course work of two semester and research or 8 semester and taking 5 year full time to complete. The taught course has been designed to prepare students for research skills and methods related to their chosen field of research:

  • Pharmaceutics

  • Pharmaceutical Chemistry

  • Pharmacology

  • Pharmacognosy


A. Industrial Pharmacy

  1. Pharmaceutical dosage forms, with particular reference to Tablet and semisolids

  2. Novel drug delivery system

  3. Pre formulation

  4. Sustained release dosage systems

B. Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics

  1. Introduction to Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics

  2. One and Multicompartment (Two) models

  3. Bioavailability and Bioequivalence [add chapter below]

  4. Pharmacokinetics of oral modified release dosage forms

C. Pharmaceutical Technology

  1. Modified release dosage forms

  2. Dosage form design for modified release dosage forms

  3. Factors for drug development with reference to preformulation

Suggested readings

The Theory and practice of Industrial Pharmacy by Lachman and Lieberman (5th Edition) Chapters 9, 13, 16, 19, etc
Applied Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics by Leon Shargel 7th edition, Chapters: 1, 4, 5, 16, 25, etc
Comprehensive Pharmacy Review by Shargel
Webpages/Net for the relevant topics

Objectives of Postgraduate Programs

Following are the major objectives:

  • To prepare Scientific/Educational manpower with depth of knowledge and research competence of international level to fill positions in Research Organizations, Industry, Management, Universities, Health Care and Educational Institutions.

  • To establish centers of research of high quality (both fundamental and applied) in the University.

  • To improve the qualification, skills, and expertise of teachers/officers and thus provide competent teachers/officers at all levels of Education in Universities, Colleges and Schools.

Examination (Course Work)

Approved course contents by the DPC of each department and by the other relevant bodies will be taught.

  • There will be two – three semesters in each year, winter, spring and summer (optional), of 16-18 weeks each (winter and spring) with a minimum of 14-16 weeks for the course work, summer semester will be of 8-10 weeks. The DPCC shall regulate the commencement of the semesters. The first semester shall normally start on second Monday of September each year and terminate by first week of January. The second semester shall start on the 4th Monday of the January and its examinations shall be held in 3rd week of May. Summer semester shall commence in third week of June and end by fourth week of August. For M.Phil two semesters of course work and one-two semesters of research / internship (6 credit hours) will be mandatory which normally has to be completed within two years.

  • For Ph.D., from the second Monday of September, the students who have maintained CGPA ≥ 3.0 in M.Phil shall undertake additional course work/ Research techniques training equivalent to 18 credit hours. In case of commencement of research in Summer semester Ph.D. course work shall start in Spring semester.

  • There shall be a Comprehensive Examination within one month after completing the Ph.D. course work.

  • The student will write and submit synopsis for Ph.D. research work within six months of completing the Ph.D course work.

Course Work Ph.D

Pharmaceutical Chemistry

First Semester

  • P.CHEM-811 Drug Discover

  • P.CHEM-813 Structure Activity Relationship

  • P. CHEM-815 Metal Complexes

Second Semester

  • P. CHEM-817 Biological Membranes

  • P. CHEM-819 Drug Solubility

  • P. CHEM-821 Drug Properties and Pharmaceutical Calculations


First Semester

  • PCEU-811 Pharmaceutical Statistics

  • PCEU-813 Advance Bio Pharmaceutics

  • PCEU-815 Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology

Second Semester

  • PCEU-817 Pharmaceutical Care

  • PCEU-819 Biopharmaceuticals

  • PCEU-821 Rate Controlled Drug Delivery System


Titles of Course

  • Medicinal Properties of Plants; their Antibacterial, Antifungal And Antiviral activites.

  • Choice in Alternative Medicines,_ Aroma-therapy. Ayurvedie, Chines Medicines, Acupuncture, Homoeopathy and Spiritual Healing:

  • Biologically Active Compounds from Marine Organisms

  • Phytochemical/Chemotaxonomic Diversity within the Plant Species of Medicinal Importance.

  • Phytochemical bases of Contract Allergy and Irritancy caused by plants and Natural Plant Products. Their mechanisms of action and Antigenic Principles.

  • Biotechnological Application in Biosynthetic Research of various Secondary Metabolites in Plants, through Plant Tissue Culture Techniques.


First Semester

  • P. Col-811 Research Methodology

  • P. Col-813 Battery of Pharmacological Test

  • P. Col-815 Metabolic Disorders

Second Semester

  • P.Col-817 Systemic Anti-infective Agents

  • P.Col-819 Local Anti Infective Agents

  • P.Col-821 Neoplastic disorders

There shall be two examinations for each course during each semester. These examinations shall be termed as mid semester (mid-term) and the final term. The mid semester examination shall be held during 8th week of each semester. The final examination is to be held at the end of the semester. (Marks: Mid term 35%, Assignments 25%, Final examination 40%). In addition to these examinations, the teacher shall give Assignments, term papers, quizzes etc. The result of a course will be submitted after one week of examination and result will be notified after two week of completion of examination. The DPC shall be responsible for supervising the teaching, examination and their related matters. The DPC may also review the evaluation of any student/class if it deems appropriate within one week of submission of result. The result of semesters as well as comprehensive examinations shall be communicated to DPCC within two weeks of announcement of result.

Comprehensive Examination.

  • Students admitted to Ph.D., course shall take comprehensive examination after successful completion of 18 credit hours course work. The Comprehensive Examination shall be held within one month after the completion of the course work.

  • The comprehensive examination will cover all course work and will consist of one composite paper (50 – 70% objective; 30 – 50% subjective). The examination will test the student’s ability to integrate and assimilate the knowledge obtained from the courses, seminars and independent studies.

  • Examiners (3-5 including Internals) for the comprehensive examination shall be appointed by the Dean out of a panel of names recommended by the Doctoral Programme Committee. At least 2 examiners will be from out side the University.

  • To pass the comprehensive examination, a student must get GP/GPA not less than 3.0.

  • If the student does not pass the comprehensive examination or doesn’t get at least GPA 3.0, in the first attempt but ≥ 2.80 he/ she may be given one more chance on the recommendation of his Supervisor and departmental Doctoral Programme Committee. Similarly, a student who remains absent during the comprehensive examination will only be given a second chance to sit in the examination subject to a condition that his/her circumstances of not being able to attend the examination are well justified and accepted by the concerned DPC. On the recommendations of the concerned DPC, the Dean/DPCC may allow such a student to reappear. The second Comprehensive Examination shall be held within one month of the first examination.

  • For Ph.D. from the second Monday of the September (or earlier in Summer semester), the students who have maintained CGPA 3.0 in M.Phil 30 credit hours (or 24+6 credit hours) shall undertake course work/ Research techniques training (for experimental sciences) equivalent to 18 credit hours.

Synopsis for PhD

  • After securing a minimum of CGPA 3.0 in the course work/ comprehensive examination of 18 credit hours, a student shall prepare a synopsis for PhD research work within the next 6 months. The synopsis should normally be submitted by 31st August of the same year in which a student passes the course work/ comprehensive examination for Ph.D. Guidelines for synopsis write-up are given in the respective Section. The synopsis has to be recommended by the DPC for approval from Advanced Studies and Research Board.

  • Students will submit copies of their synopses to the Departmental Doctoral Programme Committee (DPC) and one copy to the Punjab University Doctoral Programme Co-ordination Committee (DPCC) for approval.

  • The Departmental Doctoral Programme Committee (DPC), after evaluation, shall forward the synopsis within a period of three months to the DPCC for approval of the Advanced Studies and Research Board (ASRB).

  • In case the DPC fails to forward the synopsis within three months, the DPCC will directly forward the synopsis to the Advanced Studies and Research Board for approval.

  • Panel of Examiners for Ph.D. thesis evaluation shall also be routed through DPC/DPCC to ASRB for approval.

  • The Departmental Doctoral Programme Committee (DPC), after evaluation, shall forward the panel of Examiners within a period of one month to the DPCC for approval of the Advanced Studies and Research Board (ASRB).

  • Supervisor will submit a copy of the Panel of Examiners for Ph.D. thesis evaluation to the Punjab University Doctoral Programme Co-ordination Committee (DPCC).

  • In case the DPC fails to forward the Panel of Examiners within one month, the DPCC will directly forward the Panel of Examiners to the Advanced Studies and Research Board for approval.

Guidelines for Preparation of Synopsis

The applicants should organize Thesis Synopsis to address the following points:

  • Title The title should be brief but informative.

  • Table of Contents

  • Introduction Should clearly manifest why the present work is undertaken. The introduction may include literature review as per requirement of the subject.

  • Literature review Place the project in academic context by referring to the major work by others on the topic.

  • Objectives Define clearly the aims of the research proposal.

  • Research Questions or Hypothesis Research questions or hypothesis related to objectives of the research.

  • Significance The significance of the proposal for the field and the country.

  • Research Design and Methods Explain the approach and methods to be followed. Details pertaining to design of experiments and the data analysis should also be given.

  • Plan Give year wise tentative plan of the work.

  • List of Literature cited / References Up to date references. Preferably APA style should be followed.

PhD Thesis Submission

  • Candidate has to complete 18 credit hours course work, qualify comprehensive examination and carry out research for 2-4 years.

  • A regular student will normally be required to take workload of eight to fifteen credit hours in each semester. Eighteen credit hours course work must be completed within two semesters.

  • At the end of the first semester a student must obtain a minimum Grade Point Average (GPA) of 3.00 to be promoted to the second semester. In order to qualify a course GP 2.70 required.

  • In case a student is able to obtain GPA of 2.80 or more but less than 3.00 he / she will be promoted to the second Semester on probation. The candidate, who fails to secure 2.80 GPA in the first Semester, shall stand automatically dropped from the rolls.

  • At the end of the second semester, a student must obtain a minimum Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) of 3.00 and must also pass all the courses offered by him / her in order to be promoted to the third semester for research. If any of the preceding two conditions is not complied with by a student then he / she shall be removed from the rolls of the College.

  • A student, who completes all the courses and has not been required to repeat any course(s), obtains CGPA of less than 3.00 but not less than 2.80 at the end of the 2nd semester, may be allowed to repeat one course (varying 2-4 credits) in which he / she had obtained the lowest grades in the next semester, in order to improve the CGPA so as to obtain the minimum of 3.00 failing which he / she shall not be awarded degree (or allowed to continue research work) and removed from the rolls of the College.

  • A student who had earned ‘F’ grade in a course in first semester may be allowed to take one additional special course in second semester.

  • The teacher shall send a copy of the activity record of the courses on prescribed Performa to the DPC, Chairman / Director / Principal at the end of each semester.

Note: No student will take any course unless he has cleared the pre-requisite for it as determined by the
respective College.

The Preferable Layout of Thesis

  • Title Page

  • Abstract / Summary

  • Acknowledgments

  • Abbreviations not described in the text

  • Table of Contents

  • List of Tables (where applicable)

  • List of Figures (where applicable)

  • Introduction (including literature review) or

  • Introduction

  • Review of Literature

  • As separate chapters as per requisite of the subject

  • Research Design / Material / Methods

  • Findings and Discussion

  • May comprise of one chapter or a number of chapters depending upon the Subject matter / requirements

  • Conclusion/s, Recommendation/s where applicable

  • Reference of the Literature Cited

  • Appendices (where applicable)

  • Any other information specific to the respective discipline

Title Page

All theses must contain a title page giving the title of the thesis, the author’s name, the name of the degree for which it is presented, the department in which the author has worked or the Faculty of which the work is being presented, and the month and year of submission.

Length of Thesis

Whilst the regulations do not contain a clause relating to the maximum length of theses, it is expected that work presented for the degree of Ph.D should normally between 40,000 – 120,000 words of text. Candidates wishing to greatly exceed theses sizes should discuss the matter with their supervisors/DPC.

Published Work

Published work from the theses be included as appendix (Reprints/ proof / preprint.)


All final thesis and published work presented for higher degrees initially in a temporary form (spiral/tape) binding will be provided after defense of the thesis form approved by the Advanced Studies and Research Board; where printed pamphlets or off-prints are submitted in support of a thesis, they must be bound in with the thesis, or bound in such a manner as Binderies may advise. Front cover should give title of the thesis, name of the candidate and the name of the Departments / Centres / Institutes / Colleges / School through which submitted, in the same order from top to bottom. The lettering may be in boldface and properly spaced. Their sizes should be: title 24 pt. name of the department/ institute/ centre/ college 18 pt. The colour of binding for different degrees in the Science subjects and in Social Sciences is as follows:

Program of Study

Science Subjects


Dark Maroon OR Dark Gray


Dark Green OR Black

Spine of Thesis

Spine of the thesis should show “Ph.D thesis” on top across the width of spine, name of the candidate in the middle along the length of spine, and the year of submission across the width at the bottom. Lettering on spine should be in 18 pt. and may be in boldface.

Thesis Examination

Ph D Thesis

The thesis (guidelines for the thesis format given in the respective Section) submitted by the candidate for Ph.D. degree must comply with the following conditions:-

  • It must form a distinct contribution to knowledge and afford evidence of originality, shown either by the discovery of new facts or by the exercise of independent critical judgment.

  • It must not include research work for which degree has been conferred on anybody in this or any other University.

  • For candidates in Faculties of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities (except Department of French or other modern languages where thesis be written in French language or respective language), Economics and Management Sciences, Commerce, Law, Engineering and Technology, Life Sciences, Sciences, Pharmacy, Medicine and Dentistry and Education the thesis must be written in English and the presentation must be satisfactory for publication. In Faculties of Islamic Studies & Oriental Learning, each Department shall decide about the Language (English/Urdu/any other) in which the dissertation is to be written. However in case of Urdu / any other language, an abstract in English shall be included.

  • A 1-3 (to be decided by the faculty) publication in HEC approved journals (see HEC website) is requisite for thesis submission.

  • Any part of the thesis that has been published before submission of the thesis must be appended at the end of the thesis.

  • The candidate shall submit through his supervisor five copies (6 copies in case of co-supervisor or supervisors) of his thesis typed or printed, along with 5/6 copies of a short abstract of about 1000 words and a CD of the thesis after qualifying Ph.D.

  • The candidate shall pay the prescribed fee for the examination at the time of submission of thesis.

  • The candidate shall at the time of thesis submission supply the documents as per university requirements.

Thesis Examiners

  • The DPC (with co-opted members) will recommend to the Advanced Studies and Research Board to approve a panel of External Examiners of six experts (foreign from technically advanced countries – for thesis evaluation and local – for viva voce exam) for evaluation of thesis before submission or at the time of submission of thesis.

  • The Vice-Chancellor shall appoint two External Examiners.

  • The Controller of Examinations shall get thesis evaluated within six months after the date of submission/resubmission of thesis to his office. Any delay beyond six months be brought to the notice of the Vice-Chancellor immediately.

  • No degree shall be awarded unless all Examiners recommend the award of the degree. While recommending the award of degree, the examiners shall also report whether or not the thesis is fit for publication both from the point of view of content and language.

  • If both External Examiners find that the thesis is wholly inadequate the candidate will be asked for additional research work of maximum of one year.

  • If one of the External Examiners approves the thesis and the other rejects, it shall be sent to a fresh (3rd) examiner, for evaluation. If this new (3rd) examiner disapproves the thesis, the candidate shall be declared to have failed. In case of approval of the thesis by the 3rd examiner, the case shall be processed further for the thesis defense.

  • If any of the examiners adjudges the thesis inadequate and suggests major modification/ revision of the thesis, the candidate will be required to re-submit a Revised Version of the thesis within one year. He will be required to pay fresh fee for the examination.

  • The same examiner who suggests modification of the thesis, but not recommended the award of Degree, shall evaluate the Revised Version of the thesis.

  • If Examiner suggests modification/ corrections and also recommends the award of Ph.D degree, the candidate will make changes within three months. The corrections/ modifications/ changes in the revised version will be verified by the supervisor and Dean of the Faculty.

  • If any of the examiners finds the thesis adequate but suggests minor modifications/ revision, this may be incorporated and certified by the thesis supervisor (Internal Examiner) and Dean of the relevant faculty.

  • If the thesis is adjudged as adequate by all the Examiners and accepted by the Advanced Studies and Research Board, the scholar shall be required to undergo a Viva-Voce Examination to be conducted by one External Examiner (local) and Supervisor/s.

  • One examiner for viva-voce examination should be appointed from within Pakistan from the approved panel.

  • Examiners may have separate viva-voce examination which will be followed by Public Defense.

  • The Viva Voce Examination shall be open to the public (public defense) but only the Examiners appointed for this purpose will do the evaluation.

  • If the scholar fails to satisfy the examiners in the viva-voce examination, they may require the scholar to defend the thesis for the second (and the final) time within a period of six months.

  • If the scholar passes the Viva Voce Examination, the Syndicate on the recommendation of the Advanced Studies and Research Board will approve the reports of the examiners for the thesis and oral examination and award of the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the relevant subject to the candidate.

Grading System

Equivalence in numerical grades. Letter grades and grade points will be as follows:

Percent Marks Letter Grade Grade Point
85 & Above A 4.00
80-84 A- 3.70
75-79 B+ 3.30
70-74 B 3.00
65-69 B- 2.70
61-64 C+ 2.30
58-60 C 2.00
55-57 C- 1.70
50-54 D 1.00
Below 50 F 0.00
  • Maximum possible Grade Point Average is 4.00.

  • Minimum Cumulative Grade Point Average for obtaining 2 year M.Phil (course work and comprehensive) is 2.50. In order to qualify in the examination of semester a student must obtain at least GPA 2.50 and in individual subject not less than 2.30.

  • If GPA/ CGPA of a student remains <2.50 (but >2.30) the student shall be given one chance (only once) to repeat two subjects (2-6 Credit Hours) in order to improve CGPA in M.Phil. If GPA /CGPA of a student remain <2.50 he/ she shall be dropped from studies.

  • Minimum Cumulative Grade Point Average for PhD (course work and comprehensive) is 3.00. (For detail see the respective Sections).

  • A fraction of mark in a course is to be counted as ‘1’ mark e.g. 64.1 or 64.9 is to be shown as 65.

  • Letter Grade and Grade Point for a course will be calculated as given above.

  • For calculating GPA and CGPA refer to the formulae below.

Criteria for Awarding Postgraduate Degree

There are no available courses!